Race and Housing in Minnesota
Racial covenants are statements on property deeds discriminating minorities from purchasing certain houses or lots. Immigrants and minorities suffered repercussions for purchasing homes in white neighborhoods across Minnesota. Below, a timeline discusses history of housing discrimination across Minnesota and examples of black families affected in Ramsey County.
William and Nell Francis, one family affected by housing discrimination.
William and Nell Francis © Minnesota Historical Society
Alam, E. (2019, October 24). Rondo neighborhood, St. Paul. MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnopedia.org/place/rondo-neighborhood-st-paul
The Appeal. (1921). Nellie Francis (1874 - ca. 1929) [Photograph]. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, MN, United States. http://www.mnhs.org/duluthlynchings/documents/Nellie_Francis_1874_ca_1929-794.001.php
Delegard, K. (2019, October 9). Racial housing covenants in the Twin Cities. MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnopedia.org/thing/racial-housing-covenants-twin-cities
Nelson, P. (2017, July 26). Francis, William T. (1869–1929). MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnopedia.org/person/francis-william-t-1869-1929
Rudberg, B. (n.d.). Discrimination in Maplewood's past. Maplewood, Minnesota. https://maplewoodmn.gov/1714/Discrimination-in-Maplewoods-Past