Race and Housing in Minnesota

Racial covenants are statements on property deeds discriminating minorities from purchasing certain houses or lots. Immigrants and minorities suffered repercussions for purchasing homes in white neighborhoods across Minnesota. Below, a timeline discusses history of housing discrimination across Minnesota and examples of black families affected in Ramsey County.

William and Nell Francis, one family affected by housing discrimination.

William and Nell Francis © Minnesota Historical Society

Works Cited

Alam, E. (2019, October 24). Rondo neighborhood, St. Paul. MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnopedia.org/place/rondo-neighborhood-st-paul

The Appeal. (1921). Nellie Francis (1874 - ca. 1929) [Photograph]. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, MN, United States. http://www.mnhs.org/duluthlynchings/documents/Nellie_Francis_1874_ca_1929-794.001.php

Delegard, K. (2019, October 9). Racial housing covenants in the Twin Cities. MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnopedia.org/thing/racial-housing-covenants-twin-cities

n.a. (~1900). William T Francis (Supplied Title) [Photograph]. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, MN, United States. http://collections.mnhs.org/cms/display?irn=10773096

Nelson, P. (2017, July 26). Francis, William T. (1869–1929). MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society. http://www.mnopedia.org/person/francis-william-t-1869-1929

Rudberg, B. (n.d.). Discrimination in Maplewood's past. Maplewood, Minnesota. https://maplewoodmn.gov/1714/Discrimination-in-Maplewoods-Past

Race and Housing in Minnesota